HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
Finding and keeping good people for production, sales, maintenance and all other areas of the operation is an ongoing challenge for any company regardless of its size.
Human Resource Management is the practices, policies, and systems that influence employees’ behaviour, attitudes, and performance. There are several external forces including social, economic, technological, global, environmental, cultural, political and legal factors that influence how a company conducts its day to day business, its culture, its structure and how it manages its Human Resources. The diagram below displays these factors graphically. With respect to human resource management the diagram outlines the specific practises, policies and systems that are impacted by external factors.
Figure 15.1 Diagram of Factors Affecting Human Resource Management
The Hiring Process
Conducting the Job Analysis
Effective job analysis is the first step to preparing a strong job description. The following should be addressed when conducting the job analysis:
- Position Identification - job title, location, full-time/part-time, hours, pay structure, reporting structure, benefits, etc.
- Job Summary – clarification of the role of the department within the company and the purpose of the position
- Tasks and Responsibilities – the main duties of the position, for what and to whom they are accountable, performance measures that will be used and type of decisions within the position’s authority
- Job-Specific Knowledge and Skills – any tools or devices that will be used, which job specific skills and knowledge are mandatory upon hire and which can be learned on the job or through training
- Essential Skills – reading, writing, math, working in a team, thinking, oral communication, and continuous learning
- Other Considerations – legal and regulatory requirements, physical demands, working environment and occupational health and safety considerations
Designing Jobs that Motivate
Preparing the Job Description
Well-written and effectively developed job descriptions are communication tools that allow both employees and candidates to clearly understand the expectations of the role, the essential duties, the competencies and responsibilities, along with the required educational requirements and experience. A job description can have many uses in an organization including; recruitment, training and development, compensation, performance management, recognition and rewards, discipline, return to work programs and succession planning.
The essentials of any job description are:
- Title of the job
- Administrative information – division, department, supervisor’s title, date the description was written, name of the writer and other information for administering the human resource activities
- Brief statement of the job’s purpose
- Detailed outline of the duties involved listed in order of importance including any physical requirements, the other positions this one interacts with, and the required results to be accomplished. A sentence stating additional duties as required
- Qualifications and experience required (e.g. HACCP certified, 2 years HACCP experience)
- Equipment and resources used to do the work and the skills required to use them (e.g. forklift – ability and willingness to be forklift certified)
- Work benefits (e.g. vacation, travel, perks)
- General working conditions (e.g. scheduling, outdoor work, fast paced)
- Specific competencies required (e.g. continuous learning, team-building, good communications skills)
Given the importance of employment equity today, it is vital that all job descriptions reflect diversity and do not discriminate.
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada and Statistics Canada have created a tool to provide information about jobs in Canada’s labour market. This is called the National Occupational Classification (NOC).
Creating Job Postings
Advertising the Job Posting
There are many ways to advertise a position including using an agency and online. The appropriate vehicle will depend on the target audience for the posting e.g advertising on-line would suit computer programmers. Online recruiting on websites can provide inexpensive, worldwide access to employees. In fact, over 80% of job seekers now have access to these types of services:
Online recruiting is also on the rise in the government sector. The federal government has its own site where employers can post job openings across Canada:
There are also other sites that can be utilized for free:
Collect Applications and Screen Applicants
Interviewing Candidates - Interviewing Techniques
Many first time employers and rapidly growing companies feel like they are in unfamiliar territory when it comes time to conduct an interview. Here a few things that may help:
- Remember, you are in control of the interview
- With proper preparation you can make the interview a positive experience for both the applicant and yourself
- The applicant is also interviewing you, whether you realize it or not. Part of your task is to sell the job so that your top candidate will want to work for you
Choosing a quiet, comfortable place in which to conduct the interview will help the applicant feel at ease and ensure effective communication. Be certain to ask the same questions of each candidate and listen carefully. The applicant should do 80% of the talking. Be aware of questions you should not ask such as race, religion and ethnic origin. A complete list of prohibited grounds can be found in The Manitoba Human Rights Code.
Prior to hiring, see The Worker Recruitment and Protection Act for detailed information on acceptable recruitment activities.
Make the selection
Job Offer and Unsuccessful Candidates
Employee Retention Strategy
Now that the right person is hired for the job you don’t want to lose them to your competition, the cost of turnover is high and a good employee is hard to replace. Include the following seven concepts in the company’s retention strategy.
- Create a friendly and inviting work environment
- Set clear and measurable goals
- Provide timely, regular feedback
- Ensure regular communication
- Insist on a healthy work/life balance
- Invest in and support training and development including cross-training and mentorship programs
- Ensure a skilled management team
Effective Succession Planning
All employers should develop and maintain knowledge of the employers’ legal requirements regarding recruiting, employees’ rights, health and safety, worker’s compensation, etc.
Human Rights Code of Manitoba
Employment Standards Code
Also see Manitoba’s Labour Relations Act for information provided by Manitoba’s Labour Relations Board, which applies to unionized workplaces.
Manitoba’s Workplace Safety and Health Act and Occupational Health and Safety Regulations. It is mandatory that all employers have safety procedures outlined and written up in a safety manual as well as posted in the workplace.
Worker’s Compensation Board. Most employers are also required by the Manitoba’s Workers Compensation Act to register with the Worker’s Compensation Board of Manitoba and to pay premiums.
Canada Revenue Agency.
Payroll Deductions and Remittances. Canada Revenue Agency’s Employer’s Guide for Payroll Deductions and Remittances and Guide for Canadian Small Businesses can assist small businesses comply with regulatory requirements for payroll deductions and remittances.
Record of Employment. Employers must complete a Record of Employment (ROE) whenever there is an interruption in an employee’s earnings (quits, lay-offs, terminations, etc.). Service Canada uses the employment history information on the ROE to decide if a person qualifies for EI benefits and, if so, what the rate and term of the benefits should be. Follow the link below for full details.
Provincial Incentive Programs for Hiring and Retaining Employees
There are incentives available for hiring and training food and beverage processing employees. For more information and links to funding programs and support services in Manitoba, see the Manitoba Agriculture website.
Between May and August of each year, Manitoba Youth Job Centres coordinators provide free summer employment referral services to local employers; matching qualified job seekers with summer employment opportunities. To learn more about summer jobs for students in Manitoba, check the website.
Federal Incentive Programs for Hiring and Retaining Employees
Apprenticeship Job Creation Tax Credit. This is a federal incentive program designed to help employers offset the cost of hiring and training employees who have entered into an apprenticeship contract.
Hire a Student! Service Canada can help employers fill summer positions with students.
Young Canada Works (YCW). YCW sponsors three summer job programs: 1) YCW for Aboriginal Urban Youth, 2) YCW in Heritage Organizations, and 3) YCW in both official languages. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada provides funding through the First Nations and Inuit Youth Work Experience Program for secondary and post-secondary students.
Summer Jobs. This is a federal program that supports hiring youth. Applications from employers are due each year before the end of February.
Youth Employment Program (part of Industrial Research Assistance Program - IRAP). Food manufacturing companies that are looking to develop new products or improve their technical production processes may qualify for funding to hire an intern through IRAP. This program provides financial assistance to innovative Canadian small and medium-sized enterprises to hire post-secondary graduates to work on innovation projects.
Human Resources Training and Development
Food & Beverage Manitoba offers a broad range of training programs and initiatives that are relevant, accessible and affordable to members. Following extensive consultation with membership, Food & Beverage Manitoba has designed and organized human resources training and development initiatives to meet the specific needs and requirements of entrepreneurs and early stage food businesses. Courses are facilitated by experts in their field. They are presented in a variety of formats to accommodate members’ busy schedules. The association can also provide customized training programs, tailor-made for a company. All Food & Beverage Manitoba members receive discounts on registration fees and assistance in sourcing and evaluating training options. See the Food & Beverage Manitoba course calendar for details.
Human Resources Support
To stay competitive, food and beverage companies must seek out new ways to improve their businesses – through products, processes, and people. However, small businesses, new startups and growing companies may lack the in-house capacity to build their human resources to their fullest potential, especially when they are needed most.
Food & Beverage Manitoba’s human resources team provides its members with expert, one-on-one advice on everything from staffing to leadership training, ensuring the workforce is made up of the right people in the right jobs at the right time. Having a good understanding of the food industry, Food & Beverage Manitoba partners with members to achieve their human resource goals in the following areas:
- Recruitment and selection
- Leadership training and professional development
- Employee and labour relations
- Legal compliance
- Compensation and benefits
- Occupational health and safety
- Employee handbook and policy writing
To learn more, please visit the Food & Beverage Manitoba website: